4.1. Introduction

The discussion so far shows how the policies and institutions used by now-developed countries in the early stages of their development differ significantly from those that have commonly assumed to have been used by them, and even more from the guidelines recommended to, or rather more frequently demanded of, today’s developing countries.

In the next two sections of this chapter, I summarize the principal conclusions of chapters 2 and 3, and discuss whether we can really conclude that the current push for ‘good policies’ and ‘good governance’ by the developed countries amounts in fact to ‘kicking away the ladder’. Section 4.4 then considers some possible objections to my argument, while the final section draws some conclusions, and suggests new directions of research that have emerged from the present study.